Preceptor Resources

 

CPRB 2.1.4  Preceptors


Standard

The resident shall be precepted by qualified pharmacists or, in the case of learning experiences in pharmacy operations, qualified pharmacy technicians who have the experience, desire and aptitude to teach.


Requirement(s)

  1. 1. A preceptor shall have the knowledge, skills and practice experience to act as a role model and to assist in the development of the resident’s skills.

  2. 2.A primary preceptor shall be designated for each rotation.

  3. 3.Time shall be allocated for instruction, observation and assessment of the resident in each rotation.

  4. 4.The preceptor shall review and confirm learning goals and objectives with the resident at the beginning of the rotation.

  5. 5.The preceptor shall provide timely and regular feedback to, and assessment of, the resident.

  6. 6.The preceptor shall be committed to self-assessment and making active use of constructive feedback provided by the resident, coordiator, program director, and (where applicable) other preceptors.



Goal


Our resident preceptors are prepared, supported, and recognized for their contributions to our residents’ development.


Preceptor Selection & Support


  1. 1.New preceptors are requested to work through and complete the activities listed below.  The UBC Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Continuing Pharmacy Professional Development (CPPD) offers various precepting workshops during the year which pharmacists are encouraged to attend.  A BC-wide workshop for residency and Pharm.D. program preceptors is also offered every two years.  Please contact the Coordinator for details.

  2. 2.Existing preceptors are regularly encouraged to review the precepting resources below, are invited to refresh their skills at preceptor workshops, engage in the learning opportunities presented above, and interact with the Coordinator about any perceived needs.

  3. 3.Preceptors are expected to have appropriate training/qualifications and tenure in the area in which they are precepting.  For example, for Direct Patient Care rotation preceptors, this means a residency and/or clinical advanced degree (or equivalent experience) combined with sufficient experience (e.g., >1 year) tenure in their practice setting.  For other types of rotations (e.g., Drug Distribution), the specific parameters would be different though adherent to the framework above.


Our 3-Step Preceptor Initiation Program

  1. 1.Complete this course: BC Preceptor Development Initiative - E-TIPS for Preceptor Learning

  2. 2.Review the Evaluation and Evaluation Resources pages

  3. 3.Contact the Program Coordinator to talk about anything you are unsure of, or to request more intensive or personalized preceptor training



Rotation Manual


Asked to precept a rotation?   Start by downloading the LMPS Rotation Manual Template and simply dropping in your rotation-specific content.  Once this is completed, please forward your completed rotation manual in Word format to our Program Assistant, along with PDF copies of any required readings the resident is expected to complete prior to and during the course of the rotation.  These will be posted to one45 and will appear alongside your rotation in the residents’ schedule. 


Unsure on the difference between goals and objectives?  How do I create outcome-based learning objectives for my rotation?  Have a look at the CSHP webinar “Goals and Objectives - What's the Difference Anyways?” presented by Anjana Sengar and Anna Chiu.  Also see

Creating Objectives - the ABCD Method  Goals are broad, general statements that describe what the resident will gain from instruction and are generally difficult to measure.  Objectives are narrow, specific and measurable, describing what the resident should be able to DO to consider them competent.


As required by CPRB, rotation manuals must be reviewed and updated annually.  Preceptors will be prompted to do so by our Program Assistant at the beginning of each year.



Precepting Skills


Effective preceptors aren’t born, but they can be made. Although the skills required for effective precepting take years to hone, several launching points are provided here. Taking the time to invest in your own learning and reflection about being an effective preceptor can pay big dividends in terms of resident learning, your satisfaction with precepting, and integrating precepting with your daily workflow.


Preceptor Roles

Consider the four preceptor roles (direct instruction, modeling, coaching and facilitating) and when to use them.  The roles are sequential in nature, but consider each resident individually, their learning style/needs, their experience/skills to date and which role might be most beneficial for your resident.  Review ASHP’s “Starring Roles: The four preceptor roles and when to use them”


Asking the Right Questions

The questions preceptors ask are a key to leading residents to deeper understanding.  Bloom’s Taxonomy can be used to help you ask the RIGHT questions to get beyond “testing” for Knowledge and Comprehension to where we want our residents to be:  Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation.  See Asking the Right Questions and Powerful Questions.


Also consider the Socratic Questioning vs Pimping teaching strategies.


Giving Feedback

Establish this from day 1 of your rotation.  Ask your resident for permission to provide feedback and that you, too would like feedback in return.  Then set aside time EACH day to do so.  See “Beyond Praise in Public - Systematic Approaches to Feedback” presented at the 2014 ASHP NPPC and Giving Feedback to Residents.  Consider the GROW model and the SBIR method.



Resources to Develop Your Precepting Skills


UBC Continuing Pharmacy Professional Development - Preceptor Resources


ASHP Preceptors Tool Kit  See the section on Teaching Strategies


VCH-PHC Residency Preceptors’ Workshop

  [Video] [Handout] [Millennials part 1] [Millennials part 2]


Preceptor Education Program (PEP) for Health Professionals and Students  An excellent Ontario-based preceptorship course.


Preceptor Resource Guide: Supporting Clinical Learning  An excellent handbook for clinical preceptors developed by VCH Learning & Career Development.  Required reading for all new resident preceptors.


Precepting Through the Eyes of a Coach (Helen Roberts, “Precepting Without Borders”, Richmond, Feb 2007.)  Covers principles of coaching directly applicable to precepting, the iDESC method of having “tough discussions” with residents, asking Powerful Questions.  A must-see for all residency preceptors!  (requires free QuickTime browser plugin) [Handout]


Resident Learning Portfolios - What, Why, and How for Resident Preceptors (Dr. Peter Loewen, “Precepting Without Borders”, Richmond, Feb 2007.)  Covers principles of maintaining a professional learning portfolio, the VCH-PHC ePortfolio, and the future of ePortfolios for all health professionals. (requires free QuickTime browser plugin) [Handout]


The 1-Minute Preceptor   A classic framework for precepting embraced by clinicians around the world.



Advanced Precepting: Tools for Self-Evaluation and Reflection


Precepting-Coaching Assessment Tool  Thanks to Helen Roberts for this.


Teaching Perspectives Inventory  This will get you thinking about whether your espoused beliefs about what makes good teaching/precepting jive with your actual practices.  Thanks to Dr. Daniel Pratt for this.


“A Preceptor Guide to Pharmacy Practice Residency Training” (CSHP Publication)

”Preceptor's Handbook for Pharmacists” (ASHP Publication)


Toxic Preceptor Behaviors


Even veteran preceptors are sometimes guilty of these “toxic” behaviours known to hinder student/resident learning.  Reflect on these, consider whether you are guilty of any. 



TOXIC PRECEPTOR BEHAVIORS

Allow/make the resident feel disrespected or demeaned through words you say, tone of voice, ignoring them.  This is the most effective way to short-circuit learning, demotivate the resident, and make the precepting experience unrewarding.
Fail to consistently provide positive feedback about activities done well and learning having occurred.  Need help? Recognize when learning has occurred and acknowledge it. (eg. “It seems that you now have a good understanding of how ACE-Inhibitors can affect hemodynamics in a way that is useful for understanding how they can affect renal function.  Remember a couple of days ago when that was really a struggle for you?  You’ve come a long way.”) “Precepting Through the Eyes of a Coach” can help here.
Teach, teach, teach, talk, talk, talk.  Fail to give residents time to articulate their own understanding and explore connections between ideas, facts, and concepts.  Need help?  Learn the difference between when you need to ask good questions and lead the resident to deeper understanding (most situations) vs. when you need to teach (ie, transmit information for supposed absorption by resident) (occasionally, infrequently).  Precepting is more about GUIDING than TEACHING. “Precepting Through the Eyes of a Coach” can help here.
Ask useless or uninspired questions that seem to emphasize “trivia” and recall rather than understanding and synthesis.  Need help? Check out Asking the Right Questions and Powerful Questions.preceptor_resources_files/BLOOM%27S%20TAXONOMY_1.docpreceptor_resources_files/Powerful%20Questions_1.docshapeimage_2_link_0shapeimage_2_link_1



last updated September 3, 2014

 
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